Religious Hymns

Vasnt Moon in the chapter “Religious Hymns” of his autobiography Vasti talks about the process of change of Hindu religion to Buddhism and Muslim religions. From the chapter, some of us felt that the ways of Ambedkar and his followers regarding changing religions were not the right ways. They follow the way of violence, and force people to follow Buddhism and Muslim religions. However, I felt that it was necessary to bring out revolution in order to make big changes in social structure.

I respect the thoughts of people that everyone should have right to follow the religions according to their will, and people should not be forced to follow certain religions, but it was not only concerned with the rights of people to follow religions, it was concerned with their freedom. From the autobiography, it is clear that all the people of Nagpur were trying to bring out the equality among all castes, which was only possible by abolishing the caste system. Abolishing the caste system in the Hindu religion was not possible as the people of Nagpur believed that Hindu religion was the main cause of division of caste system. So, it was necessary to change Hindu religion to other religions like Buddhism and Muslim religions, which do not practices caste system.

Some people may also think that old people should not have been forced to leave the Hindu religion as they were emotionally attached to their religion, and all the young people were ready to change their religion. Hence, the minority of old people could not affect the entire plan of changing Hindu religion to Buddhism and Muslim religions. However, we cannot avoid the old generation because they are the one who shape the young generation. All the young people may not change their thoughts by the influence of old generation, but still there is probability that some can change their mind, and continue to follow the Hindu religion. So, I think it was necessary to call all people to change their religion for their own long-lasting benefits.

Furthermore, I think it is ok to slap a person if it can change the whole life of that person towards the positive way. We do not object whenever our parents scold or slap us though we may get furious at the instant time. We do not take it as a serious issue (except some exceptional cases), and take it as a positive thing since we believe that it was necessary to show us the right path. Similarly, Ambedkar and his followers were a kind of parents of Nagpur and entire India who were trying to make a big change for the right of low caste or untouchable people.

So, I think Ambedkar and his followers were right to call all people to change their religion though it was somehow forceful.

Some Lies Are Good Too

Although I was always aware of lying in various kinds of situations, I have never thought about lying so deeply until I read the essay “The Truth about Lying” by Judith Viorst. I never knew that lie also has different genre such as social lie, peace-keeping lies, protective lie, and trust keeping lie. The variations of lies have really surprised me. At the same time, it has also made me very aware about my own lies. After reading about different lies, I have gotten a chance to think whether all lies I say are appropriate or not. As I consider all lies, I started to find that most of the lies somehow have some kind of interest behind them such as peace-keeping lies, protective lies, and trust keeping lies. Most of the times, people say these lies to hide some kind of truths which might be important for the other people to know and harmful for the liars to reveal. Therefore, people say these lies with the motive of manipulation. However, during my course of exploration, I have also found that there is one kind of lies which are not based on any self interest or manipulative motives and that is social lies.


So, I think social lies are the best kind of lies. Even if they are lies, most of the time they are better than truths. Social lies are often said just to make other happy. Therefore, more or less, every people want to hear social lies. In social lies the liar doesn’t get anything in return but give a temporary happiness to the other person. For example, a little lies of complement to a children’s work, even if it’s not so good, can motivate him or her to do better. Similarly, a little complement about one’s look, who is not looking good, can certainly give him or her feeling of satisfaction, even though he or she knows very well that how he or she is looking. Moreover, this is the only kind of lie that doesn’t have any side effects or consequences. On one hand, social lies are also work as peace-keeping lies. They maintain the peace of family, friends, and society.


Therefore, I believe that social lies are the only kind of lies that are worth telling even if you don’t have any strict reasons to do so.


Lying and Its Usage…

“The Truth about Lying” is a classification essay written by Judith Viorst which discusses about the types of lies with its explanation. Lies sometimes result in minute changes whereas sometimes it may create a disaster. There are four types of lies and I found that I fit among all four of them. I believe that everyone fit in at least one of them.
First is social lies, lying to avoid hurting others feelings. I remember lying to my boss to keep his heart. In my last birthday, my boss gave me a birthday present. I received a decorating piece made of shells. The piece was a weird structure that I still don’t know if it’s a sheep or some other animal. However, the next day I thanked my boss for the wonderful gift.
Second type is peace-keeping lies, lying to prevent conflicts or fight between people. When my friends phone me on Saturdays, I never receive their call knowing that it is an invitation to a dance party. I never liked attending dance parties and if I would have tried to reject them then we would have ended up quarrelling with each other. Next time when I meet them I used to make an excuse and escape from there.
The third type is protective lies, lying for the sake of others better life or to hide the truth which can never be accepted by the people. When I talk to my mother, I never let her know that I am sick. I don’t want her to feel pain than I am feeling and worry about me. I want to make her happy and comfortable although we are living far away from each other. I didn’t know that hiding the truth also means lying. Yes, here I take the help of protective lies to keep my mother out of worries.
The final type is trust keeping, lying to protect the trust of someone to some other person. Once my aunt found a cigarette in my cousin’s bag and my cousin came to me to help him. He promised to quit smoking if I lied about his truth of smoking, so I lied to my aunt and from then my brother quit smoking.
In conclusion lies can sometimes improve people’s lives and sometimes destroy it as well. Therefore, one must be very careful before taking help of lies.

The Truth about Lying

I think any kind of lying is morally wrong and making excuses by categorizing lying as social lying, peace keeping lying, trust keeping lying, and protective lying does not make sense. People say that sometime lying can be considered as the best thing to do in order to make others happy, to prevent others from feeling embarrass, to prevent others from unexpected events like dying, and to maintain peace among people. People consider these lies as white lies, but what I think is that there is no existence of white lies. Lying in any circumstances cannot be considered as positive thing as these lies never benefit people. In contrast, they make condition more complicated and delicate.

People often say that we need to lie in order to make others happy. For example, people often say “you are looking awesome today” in order to make other person happy and gain positive response as reward. Some people may like positive responses while some may feel embarrass by these positive comments. In addition, it depends on a person how he or she takes fake comments. Some people think these fake comments as unnecessary buttering and dislike the person who uses these fake comments. So, I think it is better not to praise other through fake positive comments.

People often lie in order to prevent quarrels among people. I think it is not good to lie to settle quarrel among people since lying in order to settle quarrel sometimes may involve person who lies, and it may lead to a big fight. So, it is better to settle quarrel with truth so that it could be settled permanently without involving a third person.

People say that it is good to say “you look pretty with new dress” in spite of looking worst than ever when other person asked to comment on his or her dress. However, I think it is better to say truth rather than praising someone with false comment. It is better if a single person gives idea about his or her worst looking rather than he or she becomes a funny person among mass of people.

It is often said that it is okay to lie if it could save life of someone, but I think it is better to say truth since everyone has to face truth in any situation. If it is hidden today, it could reveal at any time and hurt that person more than ever. In addition, we all know that telling lies is not easy, it too hurts oneself.

So, I think lying can never be a positive thing, and it is not a good idea to make excuses for lying by saying “I lied for the sake of other happiness or comfort” since lying neither comforts a person who lies nor a person who listens someone lying.

How Does the Feeling of Discrimination Emerge?

    Arthur Miller’s play the “Death of a Salesman” presents a family of the 1930s where the members struggle to increase the income of their family so as to live a comfortable life. Willy and his wife, Linda, have two sons: Happy and Biff. Willy appreciates Biff for his popularity as he is well known football player. Willy always encourages Biff and bear positive thoughts about his son’s future. His attention towards Biff made Happy keep doing things in order to grab his father’s attention. This known or unknown negligence of Willy compels Happy to remain indifferent about his father’s condition and life. I have seen such behaviors or differences created between siblings and their parents in many families.

 For an instance, my aunt has two sons — one is older than me and the other is younger. My elder brother is an extrovert; on the other hand, my younger brother is an introvert. As my elder brother has been sociable since his childhood, my aunt shares all family matters with him. However, my younger brother never responded to what was said when he was young. My aunt’s greater focus on my elder brother has made my younger brother feel that he is being avoided by his mother. I wonder, is it my aunt who is discriminating between her sons or is it my brother who is feeling discriminated against? My aunt feels that her younger son doesn’t enjoy talking or listening about family matters for he is very reserved by nature. However, my younger brother feels that he should be informed about everything which is informed to his older brother being a part of the family. The only difference is he will speak only if some important idea or feeling needs to be expressed. Now, my younger brother is 20 years old and he is completely unconcerned about what is going on in his family the same as Happy turned out at the end of the play. I feel that parents tend to get inclined to the one who is followings their principles. In the play, Biff, was more prioritized than Happy was. Willy always believed that being well known is a part of success.  Likewise, my aunt prefers to elicit responses to what she says, so she shares with her elder son. I don’t think this is discrimination; however, parents should always be concerned about their children’s feelings though they are not moving along the path they prefer.

Willy’s Suicide Note!

Dear Linda, Biff, and Happy,

When you are reading this note, I am far away from you forever. Before leaving from this cruel world, I would like to tell you something that I never told you before, and for my whole life, I had been feeling guilty for that.

Sweetheart Linda,

I don’t know how I can express my love, my gratitude to you. You are the one who was always by my side during my rainy days. Our family was surrounded with a circle made of your love and affection.  Perhaps, to you, I was innocent like an angel. The way you loved me could only be compared to the way people worship the god. But…….oh poor Linda! I can’t tell you……but I’ve to …..darling, please stop crying for this stupid husband who betrayed with your innocent love. Believe me, I am not the god whom you worshipped. I am a devil, Linda! Yes, I am! You don’t know, I had an extra marital affair with a woman, and I used to give her stockings when you had to mend your own stockings. Oh Linda! I deceived with you! Can you forgive me, Linda? I couldn’t bring material success for my family; my whole life was an empty vessel- full of self-deception and false pride. I couldn’t lead this vain life anymore, so I made the decision of committing suicide. After my death, you’ll get the insurance money, and Biff can begin his own business with that amount. I hope that will be enough for you to lead a solvent life. Take care of yourself and my sons, darling. May Jesus take care of you. Bye.

Your Willy

Biff, my son,

I know you hate me very much. I always treated badly with you, but Biff, this is not the character of a father. You never tried to understand my love for you. I always insulted you for your failure to be a successful person because I wanted my son to be the best in the society. I wanted you to be famous, Biff. I know how much I hurt you by cheating with your mother. I am guilty for that, Biff. Can you please forgive me, Biff? I was responsible for your life, wasn’t I? How frustrating it was seeing my own son destroying his life for only my faults! Now, Biff, your pop has made a good decision. I destroyed your spirit, and I am giving you another spirit sacrificing my own life. After my death you’ll get the insurance money. Please, use the money to begin your own business. Take care of your mom and Happy. May you be successful in your life. Bye.

Your Pop

Happy, my boy,

I admit that I was indifferent to you, and I was always more concerned about Biff than you. Do you know why? Because I knew if Biff could be a famous man, he would never abandon you. I believed he would also make your life successful. Now, your pop is leaving you forever, but Happy, do obey your brother Biff, and never hurt your mother. May Jesus bless all of you. Bye.

Your pop

What Happen to a Dream Deferred?

I have never really thought about how desperately I want my
dreams to be true or how necessary it is for me to fulfill my every dream. The
only one thing I knew and care about is that I love to dream and it is what
makes my life beautiful and meaningful.


However, while reading the poem “A Dream Deferred” by Langston
Hughes, I have started to ponder about my own dreams and what has happened to
them as I delayed them. I asked myself, “What happened to my dreams deferred?”
Are they now rotten and died? Are they still filling me with same sensation
like before or they have just lost their appeal for me?


The answer I got is no. My dreams are neither rotten nor do
they stink. They are still as fresh and inspiring as they were before, in fact
even more. Therefore, I agree with the poet’s positive part about deferring


Dreams are dreams until they don’t become a part of reality.
If every dream becomes true and real instantly than it won’t be a dream
anymore. It will no more have the same desire and appeal in our heart as it
usually has when we think about our dreams to become true. I have always
noticed one thing in our human attitude that no matter how desirable the thing
is as soon we get that it starts to lose its appeal for us. It is not different
for the dreams. As soon as we fulfill our one dream, the dream loses all of its
connections with our beautiful world of imagination because then it becomes a
part of our real life. Then we start to dream of other things to fulfill the
empty place in our world of imagination since it is the thing that motivates us
to struggle and go on in our life with hope.


We are human because have dreams and power of imagination.
Without dreams human life is nothing but a river with no direction to go. It is
our dreams that give us a direction to go, show us our way, and give us meaning
to be alive. Like the way a river flows to a certain direction with the hope
that one day it will be able to meet the sea, our deferred dreams propel us to
move forward in life with the hope to fulfill it someday. And that is what
makes life happier because the desire and imagination of fulfilling a dream is
more pleasant than reality of seeing it becoming true.


Therefore, I want to say that — when a dream deferred, it
becomes dry like raisin in sun that makes it sweeter than ever. When a dream
deferred, it becomes crust and sugar over like a syrupy sweet that enhance its
taste like never before.

Mr. Willy Loman

In the play “Death of a Salesman” by Arthur Miller, I really
love the character Willy Loman. He plays the role of a father to his two sons
Biff and Happy. At first, I had the thought that he was very dominating and exploiting
his masculine superiority over his passionate wife Linda. Moreover, he appeared
to be a person always complaining about everything. He complained about his
sons not having a proper vocation. He also seemed to be crazy and a very short
tempered man. He also had extra-marital affair besides his wife Linda. He
provided stockings to his mistress, whereas his wife used the old mended stockings.
Conversely, after having read the play, I came to realize that Willy was a very
concerned and dedicated father. Well, I can say that he was wrong for having
affair with another woman, but he felt guilty for what he had done.  Additionally, he got angry with his elder son
Biff because being a father; he was concerned about his child and his future. When
Biff wasn’t settled even at the age of thirty four worried Willy so much. As a
result, his affection and concerns turned into anger. One of the biggest things
he did was sacrificing his life for his family. Some says that committing
suicide was an act of being a coward, but I believe that he was not a coward. Death
is something that cannot be played with and everyone fear death. However, Willy
was very determined and strong enough to die for the benefit of his family. His
main intention was to get insurance for his death and let Biff become a
salesman.  We might think it was foolish
of him to commit suicide. He could have worked for Charley who offered him a job,
but his pride didn’t let him to accept the job. Most often, pride can lead us
to different way. Moreover, it was during the time of the Great Depression, so committing
suicide and getting insurance was the only way to fulfill his dream of making
Biff a salesman. After knowing the rationale behind his death, I really
appreciated him. His action showed how much he cared for his family. Now, my
image of Willy has completely changed from a proudly and wild man to a
dedicated and an ambitious man willing to face death in order to fulfill his
dreams and hopes.

Self Deception:True or False?

Reading the play “Death of a Salesman” by Arthur Miller, I discern the obsession of self deception
covers the whole life of the main characters, particularly Biff and Willy. In
the work, Willy and his son Biff often think that they have a good position in their
life, and everything around them is going to flow smoothly. Then, after
realizing the painful reality that he is not an officer but an ordinary worker,
Biff becomes so desperate and indignant (Miller 38). Self deception seems to be
a bad thing for the characters, but I think that it also has good affects
besides the negative attribute. In fact, it is only bad when we blindly abuse
it in our lives without consideration or limitation.

Indeed, we can exploit it when we face obstacles and hope something special happens. It
is just like a prompt to endorse us to persevere and move forward in our lives.
There is more than once when we have to trick ourselves to make our lives more
beautiful. For example, when we are in a bad mood, and we find everything appear
to be in a wrong path. I think in these cases, “Everything will be ok,” “I can
do this,” or “I will have a better choice tomorrow” are really useful. It seems
that the spiritual medicine is going to be so effective. Different from Biff,
we shouldn’t go far away from real life. However, it does not mean that we are completely
sure about what is going to happen. Besides filling our minds with such
optimistic ideas, we need to work hard and

Other people may disagree with me because they may think that thinking about the good side will
be prone to overwhelm us when the result is contradictory to what we
anticipate. Yet knowing that we have tried our best to do it, we will not feel
any regret because it is our effort. Certainly, we will not lose our will just
because of that; conversely, it is like an incentive to help us try more the following

Nonetheless, I am a little skeptical about the idea that we can do everything we wish if we make
efforts. In fact, to accomplish what we expect to do, diligence is one of the
most indispensable factors including luckiness, knowledge, and chances. Yet I
prefer to believe that I will inevitably get betterment if I endeavor to
accomplish what I want.


The Anthropology of Manners

In the article “The Anthropology of Manners”, Edward T. Hall talks about the differences in time and proximity in various places. There is wide range of differences in conception of people of different places regarding the same manner. Sometimes, the concept of people of one place completely contradicts with the concept of other people of other place. For example, in Nepal, there are different concepts regarding the color of eyes, the habit of eating food, behavior with children, which may or may not valid to cultures of other places.

In Nepal, a child with blue colored eyes is considered as omen. It is said in Nepal that a person with blue colored eyes should not be trusted. They can betray people easily in any case. Especially, it is believed that women with blue colored eyes are more liable to cheat their husbands and family members. However, this concept is not valuable in western countries; in fact most of people in western countries possess blue eyes.

Similarly, in context of habit of eating, Newari people, one of the ethnic groups of Nepal believe that our plates should have some rice until we finish eating curry and other sweets. So, Newari people continuously serve rice to guests until they totally finish their curry and other sweets. This concept may not be valid to other cultures.

In a similar way, in Nepal, elders show love to their children by placing their hand on their children’s head. This behavior is especially termed as blessing. In contradictory, western people take this behavior as insult. They don’t want others to place hands on their head.

It is obvious that we can’t remember or know the culture of all places, and it is also certain that annoying behavior towards others’ culture make those people unpleasant. So, it is necessary to respect others’ point of view regarding manners keeping own view on own side at least after knowing the importance of these manners in their place. It will certainly help us to move ahead in our life being compatible with other members in society.